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Carved from the erstwhile State of Assam, Meghalaya became a full fledged State on January 21,1972. Bounded on the North and East by Assam and on the South and West by Bangladesh, Meghalaya is spread over an area of 22, 429 square kilometres, and lies between 20.1° N and 26.5° N latitude and 85.49 °E and 92.52 °E longitude.
The State enjoys a temperate climate. It is directly influenced by the South-West Monsoon and the northeast winter wind. The four seasons of Meghalaya are: Spring - March and April, Summer (Monsoon) - May to September, Autumn -October and November and Winter - December to February.
The Monsoon usually starts by the third week of May and continues right to the end of September and sometimes well into the middle of October. Maximum rainfall occurs over the southern slopes of the Khasi Hills, i.e over the Sohra and the Mawsynram platform, which receives the heaviest rainfall in the world. The average rainfall in the State is 12,000 mm.
The principal languages in Meghalaya are Khasi, Pnar and Garo with English as the official language of the State. It was at the initiative of the Christian missionaries that the Khasi, Pnar and Garo languages and literature have developed and emerged in the list of Modern Indian Languages. The Khasi language is believed to be one of the very few surviving dialects of the Mon-khmer family of languages in India today.
Meghalaya's capital, Shillong and also the District Headquarters of East Khasi Hills District is situated at an altitude of 1,496 metres above sea level, The capital city has a bracing climate throughout the year. This city has been the seat of Government since the consolidation of the British administration in this part of India more than a century ago.
According to legend, Shillong derived its name from a Deity named "Shyllong" whose dwelling is also known as Shyllong Peak from whose niece the Syiem clan of Khyrim, Mylliem, Maharam, Malaisohmat, Bhowal and Langrin sprang up.
The city is well connected with motorable roads all-over, has its own charm, different from other hill stations, and presents a natural scenic beauty with waterfalls, brooks, pine grooves and gardens. The place, the people, the flora and fauna and the climate all combine to make Shillong an ideal resort throughout the year. Shillong offers amenities for tourists with good hotel accommodations, facilities for sports, angling, trekking and hiking.